GREEK BUSINESS LAW

A Handbook for Businesses and Legal Practitioners
  • Συγγραφέας: Y. Kelemenis
  • Έκδοση: 2013
  • Σελίδες: 300
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Περιγραφή


Published under the auspices of Nomiki Bibliothiki, the Kelemenis & Co. Series in Business Law aims to provide handbooks and monographs for businesses and legal practitioners and do so in plain language and with a pragmatic approach. It is an initiative that has evolved beyond the firmʼs numerous publications, in Greek and in English, over the past few years, which have communicated some of the firmʼs accumulated knowledge and experience of the practice of business law to a wider audience. Together with Nomiki Bibliothiki, we have concluded that the time was ripe for the firmʼs well-received publications to go beyond legal and tax newsletters and alerts, and beyond articles in refereed journals and chapters in edited volumes, some of which have already been published by prominent law publishers (e.g. Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, Sweet & Maxwell). Indeed, the driving force behind launching such a business law series, a novelty for the Greek legal setting, is the need for publications in core areas of business law, which are written in a straightforward and practical manner for both lawyers and non-lawyers without compromising the key qualities expected of a legal publication. This is the need that Nomiki Bibliothiki and Kelemenis & Co. have set out to tackle by launching this new series.

Ιn the case of this first volume “Greek Business Law: A Handbook for Businesses and Legal Practitioners”, it has been assessed that an outline of Greek business law, which is written in English and can reach out to a readership beyond the Greek business and legal community, is missing from the existing literature and that an English text can better facilitate the access of businesses, domestic and foreign, and of foreign legal practitioners to Greek business law. The approach that the series and this first volume aim to serve is demonstrated by the broad definition given to business law. Rather than being closely linked to commercial law (to which, of course, it is), business law has been treated as a wider body of law that encompasses all key areas of law that impact the operation of a business. In this context, branches of law such as employment, tax, public procurement, data protection or commercial litigation, which would not normally find their way into typical business/commercial law books, have been integrated into the seriesʼ definition of business law to reflect their strong relevance to the way a business operates and is regulated.

Greek Business Law: A Handbook for Businesses and Legal Practitioners” has drawn, to a large extent, on the firmʼs everyday commercial and business experience. Clearly, it is a handbook that is not exhaustive in terms of either scope or each chapterʼs subject matter. There are areas that have been put aside to be dealt with in a later edition; and there are sections whose degree of detail could arguably be greater. Be that as it may, my objective has been to provide a reasonably sufficient degree of detail for a book that needs to strike a good balance between being a reference work and a handbook with a voluminous subject matter that cannot be dealt with in its entirety nor in substantial detail. In this context, the objective of this book is to cover most key areas of Greek business law in a clear, informative and succinct manner without following strict rules of scholarly writing (e.g. footnotes and references) or covering every possible aspect of Greek business law.

Σχετικά έργα


Περιεχόμενα


 
FOREWORDΣελ. VII
ABBREVIATIONSΣελ. IX
1. Introduction: General System of LawΣελ. 1
PART I: ISSUES IN CIVIL LAW  
2. ContractsΣελ. 2
2.1. IntroductionΣελ. 2
2.2. Formation of contractsΣελ. 2
2.2.1. Capacity of parties to conclude contractsΣελ. 2
2.2.2. Meeting of declarations of willΣελ. 2
2.2.3. FormalitiesΣελ. 3
2.3. Non-performance of obligationsΣελ. 3
2.3.1. Impossibility of performanceΣελ. 3
2.3.2. DelayΣελ. 3
2.3.3. RescissionΣελ. 4
2.4. ResponsibilityΣελ. 4
2.4.1. Responsibility for one's conductΣελ. 4
2.4.2. Responsibility for employeesΣελ. 4
2.4.3. The problem of altered circumstancesΣελ. 4
2.5. Commercial contractsΣελ. 5
2.5.1. Commercial contracts stricto sensuΣελ. 5
2.5.2. Service contractsΣελ. 5
2.5.3. Banking and finance contractsΣελ. 5
2.6. AssignmentsΣελ. 6
3. Real PropertyΣελ. 6
3.1. Real property rights and related distinctionsΣελ. 6
3.2. Division of real propertyΣελ. 7
3.3. Ways of property acquisition under Greek lawΣελ. 8
3.4. Taxation of real propertyΣελ. 8
3.4.1. Taxes imposed on the transfer of propertyΣελ. 8
3.4.2. Real estate taxΣελ. 9
3.4.3. Special tax on real estateΣελ. 9
3.4.4. Extraordinary duty on real estate (E.E.T.I.D.E. or E.E.T.A)Σελ. 10
3.4.5. Capital gains taxΣελ. 10
3.5. Restrictions in real estate propertyΣελ. 10
3.6. Recordation of property transactionsΣελ. 11
3.7. Real estate investment companiesΣελ. 12
4. Security RightsΣελ. 12
4.1. Types of collateralΣελ. 12
4.2. Perfection and priorityΣελ. 13
4.2.1. Hypothec on immoveable propertyΣελ. 13
4.2.2. Hypothec pre-notation on immoveable propertyΣελ. 13
4.2.3. Preferred ship mortgage and ship hypothecΣελ. 14
4.2.4. Pledge on moveable tangible propertyΣελ. 14
4.2.5. Pledge of a negotiable instrumentΣελ. 14
4.2.6. Pledge of receivables and intangible propertyΣελ. 14
4.2.7. GuaranteeΣελ. 14
4.3. Priority of liensΣελ. 14
4.4. Steps for foreclosing on and selling collateralΣελ. 15
4.4.1. ForeclosureΣελ. 15
4.4.2. SaleΣελ. 15
PART II: ISSUES IN COMMERCIAL LAW  
5. Merchants and Non-MerchantsΣελ. 17
6. Agency and Commercial RepresentationΣελ. 17
6.1. Commercial agentsΣελ. 17
6.2. DistributorsΣελ. 18
6.3. FranchisingΣελ. 19
7. Commercial PapersΣελ. 20
7.1. Bills of exchangeΣελ. 20
7.2. Promissory notesΣελ. 21
7.3. ChecksΣελ. 22
8. Consumer ProtectionΣελ. 23
8.1. Legislative frameworkΣελ. 23
8.1.1. The consumer protection statuteΣελ. 23
8.1.2. Other legislative actsΣελ. 29
8.2. Definition of consumerΣελ. 30
8.3. Consumer policy institutionsΣελ. 30
8.3.1. General Secretariat of Consumer AffairsΣελ. 30
8.3.2. Mediating servicesΣελ. 31
8.4. Consumer associationsΣελ. 31
8.5. Product liabilityΣελ. 32
8.6. Sanctions and remediesΣελ. 33
8.6.1. Civil sanctions and remediesΣελ. 33
8.6.2. Criminal sanctionsΣελ. 34
9. Intellectual PropertyΣελ. 34
9.1. Industrial propertyΣελ. 34
9.1.1. Patents and utility modelsΣελ. 34
9.1.2. Application for patents and utility modelsΣελ. 35
9.1.3. Examination procedure for patents and utility modelsΣελ. 35
9.1.4. Publications for patents and utility modelsΣελ. 36
9.1.5. Extent of protectionΣελ. 37
9.2. TrademarksΣελ. 37
9.2.1. DefinitionΣελ. 37
9.2.2. Registration procedureΣελ. 39
9.2.3. Duration and cancellation of trademarksΣελ. 41
9.3. CopyrightΣελ. 41
9.3.1. Economic and moral rightsΣελ. 41
9.3.2. Public performanceΣελ. 42
9.3.3. Restrictions on copyright and related rightsΣελ. 42
9.3.4. Collective protection societiesΣελ. 43
10. CompetitionΣελ. 43
10.1. The recent overhaul of competition legislationΣελ. 43
10.2. The Hellenic Competition Authority (HCC)Σελ. 44
10.2.1. Prioritization of casesΣελ. 45
10.2.2. Time-frame for the issuance of decisionsΣελ. 45
10.3. Anticompetitive agreementsΣελ. 45
10.4. Abuse of dominant positionΣελ. 46
10.5. Prior notification of concentrationsΣελ. 47
10.5.1. Definition of concentrationsΣελ. 47
10.5.2. Obligation for pre-notification of concentrationsΣελ. 47
10.5.3. Notification procedureΣελ. 48
10.5.4. Two-phase examinationΣελ. 49
10.5.5. Post-merger notificationΣελ. 50
10.6. Judicial reviewΣελ. 50
10.7. SanctionsΣελ. 51
10.7.1. Administrative sanctionsΣελ. 51
10.7.2. Criminal sanctionsΣελ. 52
11. Unfair CompetitionΣελ. 52
11.1. Legal frameworkΣελ. 52
11.2. Scope of applicationΣελ. 53
11.3. Legal defenceΣελ. 53
12. E-commerceΣελ. 54
12.1. IntroductionΣελ. 54
12.2. Commercial communicationsΣελ. 54
12.2.1. Conditions under which electronic information may be communicatedΣελ. 54
12.2.2. Unsolicited commercial communicationsΣελ. 54
12.2.3. Marketing campaigns and spammingΣελ. 55
12.2.4. Regulated professions/occupationsΣελ. 55
12.3. Contracts concluded by electronic meansΣελ. 55
12.3.1. Conclusion of e-contractsΣελ. 55
12.3.2. Issuing and storing e-invoices for online transactionsΣελ. 56
12.3.3. Right of withdrawalΣελ. 57
12.4. Liability of Intermediary Service ProvidersΣελ. 57
12.4.1. Online intermediariesΣελ. 57
12.4.2. Limitation of liabilityΣελ. 57
13. InsuranceΣελ. 58
13.1. The private (re)insurance regulatory frameworkΣελ. 58
13.2. Non-admitted (re)insuranceΣελ. 58
13.3. Consequences of a non-admitted (re)insurer covering risks in GreeceΣελ. 59
13.4. Requirements for granting license to an insurer in GreeceΣελ. 59
13.5. Requirements for granting a license to a reinsurer in GreeceΣελ. 59
13.6. Procedure for the grant of license regarding the conduct of (re)insurance businessΣελ. 60
13.7. Requirements for the provision of (re)insurance cover by non-Greek (re)insurance undertakingsΣελ. 60
13.8. Solvency requirements of (re)insurance undertakingsΣελ. 60
13.9. Insurance insolvency winding-up proceedingsΣελ. 61
13.10. Requirements regarding the conduct of insurance business in Greece by EU/EEA (re)insurersΣελ. 61
13.11. Insurance mediationΣελ. 62
13.12. Types of insurance intermediariesΣελ. 62
13.13. Prerequisites for undertaking insurance mediation business in GreeceΣελ. 63
13.14. Minimum statutory/regulatory context of an insurance contractΣελ. 63
13.15. Statutory/regulatory requirements for the protection of the policyholderΣελ. 64
13.16. Insurer's right to revoke coverΣελ. 64
13.17. Principles regarding multiple insuranceΣελ. 65
13.18. Principles regarding under/over-insuranceΣελ. 65
13.19. Filing a direct action against the insurer by a third partyΣελ. 65
14. Bankruptcy and InsolvencyΣελ. 66
14.1. Reorganization and insolvency regulationΣελ. 66
14.2. Conditions for the initiation of insolvency proceduresΣελ. 66
14.3. Commencement of rehabilitation processΣελ. 67
14.4. Bodies involved in the rehabilitation processΣελ. 68
14.5. Prerequisites for the official conclusion of a rehabilitation rescue planΣελ. 68
14.6. Mechanisms used to protect business assets in pre-bankruptcyΣελ. 69
14.7. The special liquidation procedureΣελ. 70
14.8. Effects of bankruptcy proceedingsΣελ. 72
14.9. Post-bankruptcy reorganization proceduresΣελ. 73
14.10. Ranking of creditors in bankruptcy proceduresΣελ. 74
14.11. Liability of a director, parent company (domestic or foreign) or other party for the debts of an insolvent companyΣελ. 74
14.12. Setting aside transactions of a company that becomes insolventΣελ. 75
PART III: LAW OF BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS  
15. Business OrganisationsΣελ. 77
15.1. Company Limited by Shares (Soci?t? Anonyme or SA)Σελ. 77
15.1.1. Formation of a SAΣελ. 77
15.1.2. Share capitalΣελ. 78
15.1.3. General Meeting of Shareholders (GMS)Σελ. 79
15.1.4. Key rights, duties and liabilities of the shareholderΣελ. 80
15.1.5. Rights of minority shareholdersΣελ. 82
15.1.6. Board of Directors (BoD)Σελ. 83
15.1.7. Accounting books and recordsΣελ. 84
15.1.8. Audit requirementsΣελ. 85
15.1.9. Government supervisionΣελ. 85
15.1.10. Transfer of non-listed sharesΣελ. 86
15.1.11. Transfer of listed sharesΣελ. 86
15.2. Company with Limited Liability (Eteria Periorismenis Efthynis or EPE)Σελ. 87
15.2.1. Formation of an EPEΣελ. 87
15.2.2. Capital and unitsΣελ. 88
15.2.3. AdministrationΣελ. 88
15.2.4. Partners' meetingΣελ. 89
15.2.5. Accounting Books and RecordsΣελ. 90
15.2.6. Audit requirementsΣελ. 90
15.2.7. Reporting requirementsΣελ. 90
15.2.8. Distribution of profitsΣελ. 90
15.2.9. LiquidationΣελ. 91
15.3. Private Company (Idiotiki Kefaleouhiki Eteria or IKE)Σελ. 91
15.3.1. Formation of an IKEΣελ. 91
15.3.2. DurationΣελ. 92
15.3.3. Capital and unitsΣελ. 92
15.3.4. AdministrationΣελ. 93
15.3.5. Partners' meetingΣελ. 93
15.3.6. Accounting Books and RecordsΣελ. 94
15.3.7. Audit requirementsΣελ. 94
15.4. General Partnership (Omorythmos Eteria or OE)Σελ. 94
15.5. Limited Partnership (Eterorythmos Eteria or EE)Σελ. 95
15.6. European Company (Societas Europaea or SE)Σελ. 95
15.7. Branch of a foreign companyΣελ. 95
15.8. Offshore Entities (Statute 89/1967)Σελ. 96
15.9. Joint VentureΣελ. 97
15.10. European Economic Interest Grouping (EEIG)Σελ. 97
PART IV: ISSUES IN M&A AND CAPITAL MARKETS  
16. Mergers & Acquisitions (Public)Σελ. 99
16.1. Obtaining control of a public companyΣελ. 99
16.2. Regulation of public takeovers and mergersΣελ. 99
16.3. Due diligence enquiries in recommended and hostile bidsΣελ. 100
16.4. Preliminary outlining the bid agreementΣελ. 101
16.5. Disclosure and notification requirements, restrictions and timetablesΣελ. 101
16.6. Mandatory offerΣελ. 103
16.7. Formal agreement between the bidder and the targetΣελ. 103
16.8. Break fees and withdrawal of an offerΣελ. 104
16.9. Announcing and making the offerΣελ. 104
16.10. Conditions attached to a takeover offerΣελ. 106
16.11. Offer documentΣελ. 107
16.12. Process of mandatory offerΣελ. 109
16.13. Regulations for a minimum level of considerationΣελ. 110
16.14. Squeeze-out and sell-out rightsΣελ. 111
16.15. Defending a hostile bid (pre- and post-bid)Σελ. 111
16.16. Restrictions or disclosure requirements imposed on personsΣελ. 112
16.17. DelistingΣελ. 113
17. Spin-offs and Transfer of Business and AssetsΣελ. 113
17.1. Business vs asset dealsΣελ. 113
17.2. Civil liability issuesΣελ. 114
17.3. Employment issuesΣελ. 114
17.4. Tax treatmentΣελ. 114
17.4.1. Transfer of businessΣελ. 114
17.4.2. Transfer of assetsΣελ. 115
17.5. Types of spin offs under Greek corporate lawΣελ. 115
17.6. Procedures applicable to divisionsΣελ. 116
18. Open-ended Mutual Funds and Closed-ended FundsΣελ. 117
18.1. Open-ended mutual fundsΣελ. 118
18.2. Closed - ended fundsΣελ. 120
18.3. Foreign fundsΣελ. 121
19. Venture CapitalΣελ. 122
19.1. Brief overview of the venture capital market in GreeceΣελ. 122
19.2. Tax incentive schemes encouraging investment in venture capital companiesΣελ. 123
19.3. Legal structure(s) commonly used as vehicles for venture capital funds in GreeceΣελ. 123
19.4. Regulation of venture capital fundsΣελ. 124
19.5. Regulation of the relationship between investor and fundΣελ. 124
19.6. Rights of a fund in its capacity as holder of preferred sharesΣελ. 124
19.7. Rights commonly used to give a fund some man­agement control over an investee companyΣελ. 125
19.8. Restrictions on the transfer of shares by shareholdersΣελ. 125
19.9. Protections of investors as minority shareholdersΣελ. 126
PART V: TAX  
20. Taxation of Business EntitiesΣελ. 127
20.1. Main taxable legal entitiesΣελ. 127
20.2. Income tax ratesΣελ. 127
20.3. Withholding tax on dividends distributed by Greek companies and Greek branchesΣελ. 127
20.4. Permanent Establishment (PE)Σελ. 129
20.5. Taxable business income (net profit before tax) in GreeceΣελ. 130
20.6. Tax deductibility of expensesΣελ. 130
20.7. Special anti-abuse rulesΣελ. 131
20.8. Transfer pricing rulesΣελ. 132
20.8.1. Arm's length principleΣελ. 132
20.8.2. Definition of associated companiesΣελ. 132
20.8.3. Transfer pricing documentation requirementsΣελ. 132
20.8.4. Violation of transfer pricing reporting and rulesΣελ. 133
20.8.5. Advance pricing arrangementsΣελ. 133
20.9. Filing of income tax returnsΣελ. 133
20.10. Certificates filed with the tax returnsΣελ. 134
20.11. Advance taxesΣελ. 134
20.12. Credit for taxes paid abroadΣελ. 134
20.13. Carrying tax losses forwardΣελ. 134
20.14. Taxation rules for the liquidation processΣελ. 135
20.15. Special rules applicable to specific sectorsΣελ. 135
20.16. VATΣελ. 135
20.16.1. Main characteristicsΣελ. 135
20.16.2. VAT ratesΣελ. 136
20.17. Stamp dutyΣελ. 136
20.18. Tax Issues from financing Greek companiesΣελ. 136
20.18.1. Capital tax on equityΣελ. 136
20.18.2. Stamp duty on private (not bank) loansΣελ. 137
20.18.3. Bank loansΣελ. 138
20.18.4. Setting interest rates between associated companies for tax purposesΣελ. 139
20.18.5. Greek withholding tax on interestΣελ. 139
20.18.6. Taxes and duties on financing through corporate bondsΣελ. 141
PART VI: INCENTIVES  
21. IncentivesΣελ. 143
21.1. Legal framework - Types of grantsΣελ. 143
21.2. Amount of grantsΣελ. 143
21.3. Regulations regarding the maximum amount of grantsΣελ. 144
21.4. Investor's own contributionΣελ. 145
21.5. Procedural key points of the Incentives LawΣελ. 146
21.6. Obligations of the project companyΣελ. 147
21.7. Recent amendmentsΣελ. 148
21.8. Tax incentives for corporate restructuringsΣελ. 149
21.8.1. Key laws and incentivesΣελ. 149
21.8.2. Selecting between laws 1297/1972 and 2166/1993Σελ. 150
PART VII: FOREIGN TRADE AND INVESTMENT  
22. Foreign Trade and Foreign Direct InvestmentΣελ. 151
22.1. Duties in foreign tradeΣελ. 151
22.2. Foreign investment and ownership restrictionsΣελ. 151
22.3. Documentation formalitiesΣελ. 152
22.4. Government approvalsΣελ. 152
22.5. Restrictions on bringing in foreigners to work in Greece and on importing equipmentΣελ. 152
22.6. Laws regarding the nationalisation or expropriation of project companies and assetsΣελ. 153
22.7. Fiscal treatment of foreign investmentΣελ. 153
22.8. Government authorities regulating key sectorsΣελ. 154
PART VIII: EMPLOYMENT  
23. EmploymentΣελ. 157
23.1. General principlesΣελ. 157
23.1.1. Forums for adjudicating employment disputesΣελ. 157
23.1.2. National law and employees working for foreign companiesΣελ. 157
23.1.3. National law and employees of national companies working in another jurisdictionΣελ. 157
23.2. Hiring the employeeΣελ. 158
23.2.1. Legal requirements as to the form of agreementΣελ. 158
23.2.2. Mandatory requirementsΣελ. 158
23.2.3. Flexible types of employment under Greek labour legislationΣελ. 163
23.2.4. Other ProvisionsΣελ. 164
23.3. Maintaining the employee relationshipΣελ. 165
23.3.1. Changes to the contractΣελ. 165
23.3.2. Change in ownership of the businessΣελ. 166
23.3.3. Social security contributionsΣελ. 166
23.3.4. Accidents at workΣελ. 166
23.3.5. Discipline and grievanceΣελ. 167
23.3.6. Harassment/discrimination/equal payΣελ. 167
23.3.7. Offsetting earningsΣελ. 167
23.4. Special rulesΣελ. 168
23.4.1. Payments for maternity and disability leaveΣελ. 168
23.4.2. Compulsory insuranceΣελ. 168
23.4.3. Absence for military or public service dutiesΣελ. 168
23.4.4. Works councils or trade unionsΣελ. 168
23.4.5. Employees' right to strikeΣελ. 168
23.4.6. Employers' responsibility for actions of their employeesΣελ. 168
23.5. Firing the employeeΣελ. 169
23.5.1. Procedures for terminating the employment agreementΣελ. 169
23.5.2. Instant dismissalΣελ. 169
23.5.3. Employee's resignationΣελ. 169
23.5.4. Termination on noticeΣελ. 169
23.5.5. Termination by reason of the employee's ageΣελ. 170
23.5.6. Directors or other senior officersΣελ. 170
23.5.7. Special rules for categories of employeeΣελ. 170
23.5.8. Specific rules for companies in financial difficultiesΣελ. 171
23.5.9. Severance paymentsΣελ. 171
23.5.10. Special tax provisions and severance paymentsΣελ. 173
23.5.11. Time limits for claims following terminationΣελ. 173
PART IX: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT  
24. Public ProcurementΣελ. 175
24.1. Legislative overviewΣελ. 175
24.1.1. National legislation following EU thresholdsΣελ. 175
24.1.2. National legislationΣελ. 175
24.2. Applicability of procurement lawΣελ. 176
24.2.1. Contracting authorityΣελ. 177
24.2.2. Value thresholdsΣελ. 177
24.2.3. Extension and amendment of an existing contractΣελ. 177
24.2.4. Transfer of contractΣελ. 178
24.2.5. Privatisations and public-private partnerships (PPPs)Σελ. 178
24.2.6. Services concessionsΣελ. 179
24.2.7. Specific provisions for in-house contractsΣελ. 179
24.3. The procurement proceduresΣελ. 179
24.3.1. General principlesΣελ. 179
24.3.2. Award proceduresΣελ. 180
24.3.3. Conclusion of a framework agreementΣελ. 180
24.3.4. Amendments to the composition of the consortiumΣελ. 181
24.3.5. Alternative bidsΣελ. 181
24.3.6. Bidders' obligationsΣελ. 181
24.3.7. Award criteriaΣελ. 181
24.3.8. Abnormally low bidsΣελ. 182
24.4. Review proceedings and judicial proceedingsΣελ. 182
24.4.1. Applicable proceedingsΣελ. 182
24.4.2. Legal implicationsΣελ. 183
PART X: DATA PROTECTION  
25. Data ProtectionΣελ. 185
25.1. Legal frameworkΣελ. 185
25.1.1. International obligationsΣελ. 185
25.1.2. Constitutional protectionΣελ. 185
25.1.3. Legislative protectionΣελ. 185
25.2. The Hellenic Data Protection AuthorityΣελ. 186
25.3. DefinitionsΣελ. 187
25.4. Collection and processing of personal dataΣελ. 187
25.4.1. Lawful processingΣελ. 187
25.4.2. Criteria for lawful processingΣελ. 188
25.4.3. Notifications - PermitsΣελ. 189
25.5. Collection and processing of sensitive dataΣελ. 190
25.5.1. Prohibition of processing and derogationsΣελ. 190
25.5.2. Interconnection permitΣελ. 191
25.6. Exceptions from the obligation to notify and / or receive permitsΣελ. 191
25.7. Cross-border transfer of personal dataΣελ. 192
25.7.1. Transfer to EU statesΣελ. 192
25.7.2. Transfer to non-EU statesΣελ. 192
25.8. Rights of data subjectsΣελ. 194
25.8.1. Right to informationΣελ. 194
25.8.2. Right to accessΣελ. 194
25.8.3. Right to objectΣελ. 195
25.9. SanctionsΣελ. 195
25.9.1. Administrative sanctionsΣελ. 195
25.9.2. Criminal sanctionsΣελ. 196
25.9.3. Civil liabilityΣελ. 196
PART XI: DISPUTE RESOLUTION  
26. Civil Actions and ProceduresΣελ. 197
26.1. Type of legal systemΣελ. 197
26.2. Structure of the Greek civil court systemΣελ. 197
26.3. Time limitation in the context of commercial litigationΣελ. 198
26.4. Main stages in ordinary civil proceedingsΣελ. 198
26.5. Commencement of civil proceedingsΣελ. 199
26.6. Pre-action interim remediesΣελ. 200
26.7. Main elements of the claimant's pleadingsΣελ. 200
26.8. Timelines for serving a statement of defence and defending the claimΣελ. 201
26.9. Case allocation systemΣελ. 201
26.10. Rules of disclosureΣελ. 202
26.11. EvidenceΣελ. 202
26.12. Rules of appeal against a judgmentΣελ. 203
26.13. Enforceable instrumentsΣελ. 204
26.14. Control of enforcement proceedings by the courtΣελ. 204
26.15. Execution to satisfy a money claimΣελ. 204
26.16. Lawyers' fees and calculation of interestΣελ. 205
27. ArbitrationΣελ. 205
27.1. Use of commercial arbitrationΣελ. 205
27.2. Arbitration organisations commonly used in large commercial disputesΣελ. 206
27.3. Applicable legislationΣελ. 206
27.4. Mandatory legislative provisionsΣελ. 207
27.5. Requirements for independence or impartialityΣελ. 207
27.6. Time limitation in the context of commercial arbitrationΣελ. 208
27.7. Arbitration agreementsΣελ. 208
27.8. Statutory rules on arbitratorsΣελ. 209
27.9. Procedural rulesΣελ. 209
27.10. Procedural powers of arbitratorsΣελ. 209
27.11. EvidenceΣελ. 210
27.12. Intervention of local courts in arbitration proceedingsΣελ. 210
27.13. Remedies in breach of an arbitration agreementΣελ. 211
27.14. Interim and final remedies available from the tribunalΣελ. 212
27.15. Appeals and challengesΣελ. 212
27.16. Legal fee structuresΣελ. 214
27.17. Liability to pay legal costsΣελ. 214
27.18. EnforcementΣελ. 215
28. MediationΣελ. 216
28.1. Use of mediationΣελ. 216
28.2. MediatorsΣελ. 216
28.2.1. Accreditation requirementsΣελ. 216
28.2.2. AppointmentΣελ. 217
28.2.3. Requirements for independence and impartialityΣελ. 217
28.2.4. LiabilityΣελ. 217
28.3. Recourse to mediationΣελ. 217
28.4. Time limitation and prescription periods in the context of mediationΣελ. 218
28.5. Procedural rulesΣελ. 218
28.6. ConfidentialityΣελ. 218
28.7. Termination of mediationΣελ. 219
28.8. Legal fee structures and costsΣελ. 220
28.9. EnforcementΣελ. 220
29. Recognition of Foreign JudgmentsΣελ. 220
29.1. IntroductionΣελ. 220
29.2. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and orders of third countriesΣελ. 221
29.2.1. Enforceability requirements: foreign ordersΣελ. 222
29.2.2. Enforceability requirements: foreign court judgmentsΣελ. 222
29.2.3. JurisdictionΣελ. 223
29.2.4. Filing and content of actionΣελ. 224
29.2.5. EvidenceΣελ. 224
29.2.6. Examination of the Greek courtΣελ. 225
29.3. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and orders of European Union countriesΣελ. 225
29.3.7. Reasons for denial of recognitionΣελ. 226
29.3.8. Declaration of enforceabilityΣελ. 227
29.4. AppealsΣελ. 228
29.4.1. Appeals pursuant to the provisions of Regulation 44/2001Σελ. 228
29.4.2. Appeals pursuant to the provisions of the Code of Civil ProcedureΣελ. 230
29.5. Court costsΣελ. 232
TABLES OF LEGISLATIONΣελ. 233
1. International ConventionsΣελ. 233
2. European Treaties and LegislationΣελ. 233
2.1. TreatiesΣελ. 233
2.2. RegulationsΣελ. 234
2.3. DirectivesΣελ. 234
3. National LegislationΣελ. 236
3.1. Greek ConstitutionΣελ. 236
3.2. Greek CodesΣελ. 236
3.3. Greek StatutesΣελ. 245
3.4. Legislative DecreesΣελ. 260
3.5. Presidential DecreesΣελ. 261
3.6. Royal DecreesΣελ. 261
INDEXΣελ. 263




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